Distribution

Native Range – Together, the races of the House Crow Corvus splendens have a native range stretching from Pakistani Baluchistan in the west through Myanmar to South Yunnan in the east, and throughout the Indian Subcontinent from Central Nepal in the north to Sri Lanka in the south, and on the Maldive Islands.

House Crow Distribution
House Crow Distribution

Introduced Range – Since the late 1800s, their range has increased dramatically, with breeding populations having established in many sites, mainly bordering the Red Sea, Indian Oceans and its islands, so far totalling 24 countries outside their native range, usually achieving high population densities and pest status.  They have also reached 24 other locations including Australia, USA, Chile, the West Indies, though not establishing there.  This process of dispersal is continuing and although typically regarded as a tropical species, in 1994 a pair arrived in Hoek van Holland in the Netherlands, and increased to more than 35. The Dutch authorities have launched an eradication programme.  Lone birds have also turned up in 9 other European countries.

Spread -Their main means of dispersal to colonise new locations is by riding aboard ocean going ships, although in the late 1800s they were also deliberate released in Aden, Zanzibar and near Kuala Lumpur, in an attempt to control caterpillar plagues or to clean up human garbage.  But these three locations have become major centres of their further ship-assisted spread.  House Crows are also spreading overland in parts of SE Asia and East Africa.